CHAP 2 : LEARNING

Learning When I first listen to the word “LEARNING”, I only figure out the things such as the way of learning according to psychology, how to overcome stress, and etc. However, after I had finished studying about this chapter, I had found out that my definition towards learning are not the same as what psychologist defined it. I also found out that there are a few theories about “LEARNING”.

  1. DESCRIPTION 

“Learning is when you learn something”, “Learning is to learn how to do something”. As for the brief description, LEARNING is any relative permanent change in behavior brought up by experience or practice.

  • Any kind of changes in the way an organism behave is learning
  • Differences of maturation that is controlled by the genes
  1. THEORIES
  • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 

    Classical Conditioning are known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning in which it is a process of behavior analysis in which an innate response to a potent biological stimulus becomes expressed in response to a previously neutral stimulus. This can be achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the potent biological stimulus that elicits the desired response. classical-conditioning

    Criteria

    Explanation

    Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

    A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response

    Unconditioned response (UCR)

    An involuntary response (reflex) to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus

       Conditioned stimulus (CS)

    Stimulus that able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus

          Neutral Stimulus (NS)

    A stimulus that on its own does not lead to any response

    Conditioned response (CR)

    Learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus

4 principles of Classical Conditioning are: 

  1. The stimulus CS (NS) must come before the (UCS)   Classical_Conditioning2 (2)
  2. The stimulus must come very close together in time in which only seconds apart. However, when the interval was too long, the dog will not salivate
  3. The stimulus must be paired with the UCS many times so that the dog get used to it and even when the food was not around, the dog will salivate when it heard the ring
  4. The CS is usually some stimulus that is distinctive or stands out from other competing stimuli

The concepts in Classical Conditioning:

Criteria

Explanation
    Stimulus generalization The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response stimulus-generalization2
     Stimulus discrimination The tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the same stimulus is never paired with the UCS classical-conditioning-9-728

Extinction

The disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the UCS 608087-5828-22

Reinforcer

Any event or object that, when following a response, increases the likelihood of that response occurring again kiss

Spontaneous recovery

The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred 215vdrfmm0jecc
Higher order conditioning

Occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become the second conditioned stimulus

 psyc1101-chapter-5-4th-edition-powerpoint-18-638

## After I’ve learned about Classical Conditioning, I found out that the dog will not salivate if the UCS are not compaired with CS

Conditioned Emotional Response  chapter05-10-638

OPERANT CONDITIONING

  1. DESCRIPTION 

                      Operant conditioning separates itself from classical conditioning because it is highly complex, integrating positive and negative conditioning into its practices; whereas, classical conditioning focuses only on either positive or negative conditioning but not both.

  2. LAWS

THORNDIKE LAW 

If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will be repeated and if followed by unpleasant consequence, it will not be repeated

last_thumb1365713513 cat

SKINNER’S BOX 

Contains one or more levers which an animal can pres, one or more stimulus lights and one or more places in which reinforces like food can be delivered.

maxresdefault skinner_box_by_sylarsushicat-d4xktwo SkinnerRatCartoonSM

  1. REINFORCEMENT

STAGE 

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TYPE

positive_negative_reinforcement

  1. SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT 

PARTIAL AND CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT

Criteria                                         Explanation
    Partial reinforcement                     effect The tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct response to be very resistant to extinction
Continuous reinforcement The reinforcement of each and every correct response.

RATIOS

Criteria                                                 Explanation
Fixed ratio The number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same

Variable ratio The number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event

INTERVALS

Criteria                                          Explanation
Fixed intervals The interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same
Variable intervals The interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event

slide_64

  1. PUNISHMENT

APPLICATION

The punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing  an unpleasant stimulus

child-rights_2   20071128-110104_20071128_001_caning

REMOVAL 

The punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus

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HOW TO MAKE PUNISHMENT MORE EFFECTIVE 

  • Punishment should immediately follow the behavior
  • Punishment should be consistent
  • Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible, with reinforcement of the right behavior

## Now I really understand what does Operant Conditioning mean. After doing some research, what I can learn from Operant Conditioning is a process whereby; when I make a good things, I will get a good reinforcement. However, when I fail my test, the pleasurable thing I owned will be taken back by my mother until I get a good grades.

  • COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY

The Cognitive Learning Theory explains why the brain is the most incredible network of information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things. This theory can be divided into two specific theories: the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and the Cognitive Behavioral Theory (CBT). Moreover, it is defined as  learning through process.

Latent learning: learning that remains hidden until it’s application become useful

## After I make some research about Cognitive Learning Theory, I can conclude that in a hard situation, I need to think of any solutions to escape from it because no one will help me when I am alone in hard situation. Other than that, the learner will use many ways in order for them to understand what they learn by planning, experience, and etc.

  • OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING THEORY

Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. Albert Bandura, who is known for the classic Bobo doll experiment, identified this basic form of learning in 1961

bandura-bobo_doll

4 ELEMENTS OF OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING 

Criteria

Explanation

Attention

Attention

To learn anything through observation, the learner must first pay attention to the model

Memory

memory

The learner must also be able to retain the memory of what was done such as remembering the steps of preparing a dish that was first seen on a cooking show

Imitation

HTHYCT-Imitation-Turn-Taking

The learner must be capable of reproducing or imitating the actions of the model

Motivation

Motivation1

The learner must have the desire to perform the action

## I have come to a conclusion whereby the learner will take a good look to their model and try to understand what the model do so that, they can become an expert for that particular things. For example, I am not a good swimmer at first. However, I am now an intermediate in swimming because I have watched and learned from my father when I was 12 years old.

####As a conclusion, I have learned so many things about this chapter and I  had discovered many new terms that I once heard  when I first learn Psychology

sixpupils

Wherever or whenever you are, when there is an opportunity to learn and discover new things, do not take it for granted and never give up…

Thank you ….

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